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Publications

  1. Niu, Y., Tao, X., Touhara, K., MacKinnon, R. (2020). Cryo-EM analysis of PIP2 regulation in GIRK channels. eLife, Aug. 26; 9:e60552. PMID: 32844743.  PMCID: 7556866.  Full text: https://elifesciences.org/articles/60552
  2. Sun, J., MacKinnon, R. (2020). Structural basis of human KCNQ1 modulation and gating.  Cell, 180(2) 340-347.e9.  PMID: 31883792.  PMCID: 7083075. Full text: https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(19)31329-7
  3. Tao, X., MacKinnon, R. (2019). Molecular Structures of the human Slo1K+ channel in complex with b4. eLife, 2019; 8:e51409. PMCID: 6934384. Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934384/
  4. Lee, C.H., MacKinnon, R. (2019). Voltage sensor movements during hyperpolarization in the HCN channel. Cell, 179(7), 1582-1589.e7. PMID: 31787376.  PMCID: 6911011. Full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867419312279?via%3Dihub
  5. Tao, X., MacKinnon, R. (2019). Cryo-EM structure of the KvAP channel reveals a non-domain swapped voltage sensor topology. eLife, Nov. 2019; 8:e52164. PMCID: 6882556.  Full text: https://elifesciences.org/articles/52164
  6. Brohawn, S.G., Wang, W., Handler, A., Campbell, E.B., Schwarz, J.R., MacKinnon, R. (2019). The mechanosensitive ion channel TRAAK is localized to the mammalian node of Ranvier.  eLife, Nov. 2019; 8:e50403.  PMID: 31674909.  PMCID: 6824864.  Full text: https://elifesciences.org/articles/50403
  7. Whicher, J., MacKinnon, R. (2019). Regulation of Eag1 gating by its intracellular domains. eLife, Sept. 2019; 8: e49188. PMCID: 6731095. Full text: https://elifesciences.org/articles/49188
  8.  Lin, Y.C., Guo, Y.R., Miyagi, A., Levring, J., MacKinnon, R., Scheuring, S. (2019). Force-induced conformational changes in Piezo1. Nature, 573, 230-244. PMID: 31435018. PMCID: 7258172.  Full text: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1499-2
  9. Touhara, K., MacKinnon, R. (2018). Molecular basis of signaling specificity between GIRK channels and GPCRs. eLife, Dec. 2018:7:e42908. PMID:30526853. PMCID:6335053.  Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335053/
  10. Haselwandter, C., MacKinnon, R. (2018). Piezo’s membrane footprint and its contribution to mechanosensitivity. eLife, Nov. 2018;7:e41968. PMID:30480546. PMCID: 6317911. Full text: https://elifesciences.org/articles/41968
  11. Del Marmol, J., Touhara, K., Croft, G., MacKinnon, R. (2018). Piezo1 forms a slowly-inactivating mechanosensory channel in mouse embryonic stem cells. eLife August 23, 2018;7:e33149.  PMID: 30132757. PMCID: 6128688.  Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128688/
  12. Park, E., MacKinnon, R. (2018). Structure of the CLC-1 chloride channel from Homo sapiens. eLife, May 29, 2018;7:e36629.  PMCID: 6019066. Full text: https://elifesciences.org/articles/36629
  13. Lee, C-H., MacKinnon, R. (2018). Activation mechanism of a human SK-calmodulin channel complex elucidated by cryo-EM structures. Science 360, 508-513. PMID: 29724949.  PMCID: 6241251. Full text: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6388/508.long
  14. Lee K.P.K., Chen J., MacKinnon R. (2017). Molecular structure of human KATP in complex with ATP and ADP. eLife, Dec 29; 6. pii: e32481. PMID: 29286281. PMCID: 5790381. Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790381/
  15. Guo, Y.R., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Structure-based membrane dome mechanism for Piezo mechanosensitivity.  eLife, December 12, el.33660.  PMID: 29231809.  PMCID: 5788504.  Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788504/?report=classic
  16. Sun, J., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Cryo-EM structure of a KCNQ1/CaM complex reveals insights into congenital long QT syndrome. Cell, 169(6), 1042-1050.   PMCID: 5562354. Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867417305792
  17. Wang, W., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Cryo-EM structure of the open human ether-à-go-go related K+ channel hERG. Cell,  169(3), 422-430. PMCID: 5484391. Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867417304105.
  18. Hite, R.K., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Structural Titration of Slo2.2, a Na+-dependent K+ channel. Cell, 168(3), 390-399.  PMCID: 5382815.  Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867416317469
  19. Lee, C-H., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Structures of the human HCN1 hyperpolarization-activated channel. Cell, 168(1-2), 111-120. PMCID: 5496774.  Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867416317391
  20. Hite, R.K., Tao, X., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Structural basis for gating the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Nature, 541(7635), 52-57.  PMID: 27974801. PMCID: 5513477.  Full text: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v541/n7635/full/nature20775.html
  21. Tao, X., Hite, R.K., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Cryo-EM structure of the open high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel. Nature, 541(7635), 46-51. PMCID: 5500982.  Full text: http://va8ef7lf8s.search.serialssolutions.com/?sid=Entrez:PubMed&id=pmid:27974795
  22. Park, E., Campbell E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2017). Structure of a CLC Chloride Ion Channel by Cryo-Electron Microscopy. Nature, 541(7638), 500-505  PMID: 28002411. PMCID: 5576512.  Full text: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v541/n7638/full/nature20812.html
  23. Whicher, J., MacKinnon, R. (2016). Structure of the voltage-gated K+ channel Eag1 reveals an alternative voltage sensing mechanism. Science, 353(6300), 664-669.  PMCID: 5477842.  Full text: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6300/664.full.pdf+html
  24. Touhara, K.K., Wang, W., MacKinnon, R. (2016). The GIRK1 subunit potentiates G protein activation of cardiac GIRK1/4 hetero-tetramers. eLife, 2016 Apr 13;5. pii: e15750.   PMID: 27074664. PMCID: 4866825.  Full Text: eLife.15750
  25.  Wang, W., Touhara, K.K., Weir, K., Bean, B.P., MacKinnon, R. (2016). Cooperative regulation by G proteins and Na+ of neuronal GIRK2 K+ channels. eLife, 2016 Apr 13;5. pii: e15751. PMID: 27074662. PMCID: 4866826.  Full Text: eLife.15751
  26.  Su, Z., Brown, E. C., Wang, W., MacKinnon, R. (2016). Novel cell-free high-throughput screening method for pharmacological tools targeting K+ channels. PNAS,  113(20), 5748-5753.  Pub Med PMID: 27091997. PMCID: 4878532. Full Text: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/04/15/1602815113.long
  27.  Hite, R.K., Yuan, P., Li, Z., Hsuing, Y., Walz, T., MacKinnon, R. (2015). Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Slo2.2 Na+-activated K+ channel. Nature, 527(7577), 198-203. PMID: 26436452. PMCID: 4886347.
  28. Brohawn, S.G., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2014). Physical mechanism for gating and mechanosensitivity of the human TRAAK K+ channel. Nature, 51 (7529), 126-30.  PMID: 25471887; PMCID: 4682367. HHMIMSID: HHMIMS639323. PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4682367/pdf/nihms639323.pdf
  29. Hite, R.K., Butterwick, J.A., MacKinnon, R. (2014). Phosphatidic acid modulation of Kv channel voltage sensor function. eLife,  PMID: 25285449. PMCID: 4212207.  PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4212207/pdf/elife04366.pdf
  30. Wang, W., Whorton, M.R., MacKinnon, R. (2014). Quantitative analysis of mammalian GIRK2 channel regulation by G proteins, the signaling lipid PIP2 and Na+ in a reconstituted system. eLife, 2014;3:e03671. PMID: 25049222. PMCID: 4135351.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4135351/pdf/elife03671.pdf
  31. Brohawn, S.G., Su, Z., MacKinnon, R. (2014). Mechanosensitivity is mediated directly by the lipid membrane in TRAAK and TREK1 K+ channels. PNAS, 111(9), 3614-9. PMID: 24550493; PMCID: 3948252.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948252/pdf/pnas.201320768.pdf
  32. Whorton, M.R., MacKinnon, R. (2013). X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex. Nature, 498 (7453), 190-7.  PMID: 23739333.  PMCID: 4654628.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4654628/pdf/nihms475967.pdf
  33. Banerjee, A., Lee, A., Campbell, E., MacKinnon, R. (2013). Structure of a pore-blocking toxin in complex with a eukaryotic voltage-dependent K+ channel. eLife, 2013; e00594. PMID: 23705070; PMCID: 3660741. PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3660741/pdf/elife00594.pdf
  34. Brohawn, S.G., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2013). Domain-swapped chain connectivity and gated membrane access in a Fab-mediated crystal of the human TRAAK K+ channel. PNAS, 110(6), 2129-34. PMID: 23341632; PMCID: 358379.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3568379/pdf/pnas.201218950.pdf
  35. Leonetti, M.D., Yuan, P., Hsiung, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2012). Functional and structural analysis of the human SLO3 pH- and voltage-gated K+ channel. PNAS, 109(47), 19274-279. PMID: 23129643;  PMCID: 3511096. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511096/pdf/pnas.201215078.pdf
  36. Feng, L., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2012). Molecular mechanism of proton transport in CLC Cl-/H+ exchange transporters. PNAS, 109(29), 11699-704. PMID: 22753511; PMCID: 3406864.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406864/pdf/pnas.1205764109.pdf
  37. Schmidt, D., del Marmol, J., MacKinnon, R. (2012). Mechanistic basis for low threshold mechanosensitivity in voltage-dependent K+ channels. PNAS, 109(26), 10352-7. PMID: 22675122; PMCID: 3387069.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387069/pdf/pnas.1204700109.pdf
  38. Brohawn, S.G., del Mármol, J., MacKinnon, R. (2012). Crystal Structure of the Human K2P TRAAK, a Lipid- and Mechano-Sensitive K+ Ion Channel. Science, 335 (6067), 436-441. PMID: 22282805; PMCID: 3329120.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3329120/pdf/nihms367931.pdf
  39. Yuan P., Leonetti M.D., Hsiung, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2011). Open structure of the Ca2+ gating ring in the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel. Nature, 481 (7379), 94-97 PMID: 22139424; PMCID: 3319005. PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319005/pdf/nihms359917.pdf
  40. Whorton, M.R., MacKinnon, R. (2011). Crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 K+ channel and gating regulation by G proteins, PIP(2), and sodium. Cell, 147(1), 199-208. PMID: 21962516; PMCID: 3243363.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243363/pdf/nihms330339.pdf
  41. Hansen, S.B., Tao, X., MacKinnon, R. (2011). Structural basis of PIP2 activation of the classical inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2. Nature, 477(7365), 495-8. PMID: 21874019; PMCID: 3324908.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3324908/pdf/nihms352299.pdf
  42. Feng, L., Campbell, E.B., Hsiung, Y.C., MacKinnon, R. (2010). Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle. Science, 330(6004), 635-41. PMID: 20929736; PMCID: 3079386.  PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079386/pdf/nihms259637.pdf
  43. Butterwick, J.A., MacKinnon, R. (2010, Nov.). Solution structure and phospholipid interactions of the isolated voltage-sensor domain from KvAP. J Mol Biology, 403(4), 591-606. PMID: 20851706; PMCID: 2971526.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2971526/pdf/nihms244047.pdf
  44. Yuan, P., Leonetti, M.D., Pico, A.R., Hsiung, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2010). Structure of the human BK channel Ca2+-activation apparatus at 3.0 Å resolution. Science, 329(5988), 182-6. PMID: 20508092; PMCID: 3022345.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3022345/pdf/nihms259636.pdf
  45. Tao, X., Lee, A., Limapichat, W., Dougherty, D.A., MacKinnon, R. (2010). A gating charge transfer center in voltage sensors. Science, 328(5974), 67-73. PMID: 20360102; PMCID: 2869078.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2869078/pdf/nihms201352.pdf
  46. Tao, X., Avalos, J.L., Chen, J., MacKinnon, R. (2009). Crystal structure of the eukaryotic strong inward-rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2 at 3.1 Å resolution. Science, 326(5960), 1668-74. PMID: 20019282; PMCID: 2819303.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819303/pdf/nihms172625.pdf
  47. Endeward, B., Butterwick, J.A., MacKinnon, R., Prisner, T.F. (2009,). Pulsed electron-electron double-resonance determination of spin-label distances and orientations on the tetrameric potassium ion channel KcsA. J Am Chem Soc, 131(42), 15246-50. PMID: 19919160; PMCID: 2779547. PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779547/pdf/nihms154720.pdf
  48. Schmidt, D., Cross, S.R., MacKinnon, R. (2009). A gating model for the archeal voltage-dependent K+ channel KvAP in DPhPC and POPE: POPG decane lipid bilayers. J Mol Biology, 390(5), 902-12. PMID: 19481093; PMCID: 2778279. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2778279/pdf/nihms119991.pdf
  49. Lee, S.Y., Letts, J.A., MacKinnon, R. (2009). Functional reconstitution of purified human Hv1 H+ Channels. J Mol Biology, 387(5), 1055-60. PMID: 19233200; PMCID: 2778278.  PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2778278/pdf/nihms111560.pdf
  50. Lee, S.Y., Banerjee, A., MacKinnon, R. (2009). Two separate interfaces between the voltage sensor and pore are required for the function of voltage-dependent K+ Channels. PLoS Biology, 7(3), e47. PMID: 19260762; PMCID: 2650729. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2650729/pdf/pbio.1000047.pdf
  51. Schmidt, D., MacKinnon, R. (2008). Voltage-dependent K+ channel gating and voltage sensor toxin sensitivity depend on the mechanical state of the lipid membrane. PNAS, 105(49), 19276-19281. PMID: 19050073; PMCID: 2614752. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614752/pdf/zpq19276.pdf
  52. Tao, X., MacKinnon, R. (2008). Functional analysis of Kv1.2 and paddle chimera Kv channels in planar lipid bilayers. J Mol Biology, 382(1), 24-33. Epub 2008 Jul 7. PMID: 18638484; PMCID: 2825521. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825521/pdf/nihms69486.pdf
  53. Banerjee, A., MacKinnon, R. (2008). Inferred motions of the S3a helix during voltage-dependent K+ channel gating. J Mol Biology, 381(3), 569-80. Epub 2008 Jun 10. PMID: 18632115; PMCID: 2819426. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819426/pdf/nihms-65209.pdf
  54. Lee, S.Y., Letts, J.A., MacKinnon, R. (2008). Dimeric subunit stoichiometry of the human voltage-dependent proton channel Hv1. PNAS, 105(22), 7692-7695. PMID: 18509058; PMCID: 2409406. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2409406/pdf/zpq7692.pdf
  55. Nishida, M., Cadene, M., Chait, B.T., MacKinnon, R. (2007). Crystal structure of a Kir3.1-prokaryotic Kir channel chimera. EMBO J, 26(17), 4005-4015. PMID: 17703190; PMCID: 1994128.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1994128/pdf/7601828a.pdf
  56. Long, S.B., Tao X., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2007). Atomic structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel in a lipid membrane-like environment. Nature, 450(7168), 376-382. PMID: 18004376.   Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7168/full/nature06265.html
  57. Lockless, S.W., Zhou, M., MacKinnon, R. (2007). Structural and thermodynamic properties of selective ion binding in a K+ channel. PLoS Biology, 5(5), e121. PMID: 17472437; PMCID: 1858713. PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858713/pdf/pbio.0050121.pdf
  58. Schmidt, D., Jiang, Q.X., MacKinnon, R. (2006). Phospholipids and the origin of cationic gating charges in voltage sensors. Nature, 444(7120), 775-779. PMID: 17136096.  Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7120/full/nature05416.html
  59. Valiyaveetil, F.I., Leonetti, M., Muir, T.W., MacKinnon, R. (2006). Ion selectivity in a semisynthetic K+ channel locked in the conductive conformation. Science, 314(5801), 1004-1007. PMID: 17095703.  Full Text: http://classic.sciencemag.org/content/314/5801/1004.long
  60. Valiyaveetil, F.I., Sekedat, M., MacKinnon, R., Muir, T.W. (2006). Structural and functional consequences of an amide-to-ester substitution in the selectivity filter of a potassium channel. J Am Chem Soc, 128(35), 11591-11599. PMID: 16939283; PMCID: 2546570. PMC Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2546570/
  61. Lee, S.Y., Lee, A., Chen, J.Y., MacKinnon, R. (2005). Structure of the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel and its dependence on the lipid membrane. PNAS, 102(43): 15441-15446. PMID: 16223877; PMCID: 1253646.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//?term=16223877
  62. Ruta, V., Chen, J.Y., MacKinnon, R. (2005). Calibrated measurement of gating charge arginine displacement in the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel. Cell, 123(3), 463-475. PMID: 16269337.  Full Text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867405009128
  63. Long, S.B., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2005). Voltage sensor of Kv1.2: structural basis of electromechanical coupling. Science, 309(5736), 903-908. PMID: 16002579.  Full Text: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5736/903.long
  64. Long, S.B., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon R. (2005). Crystal structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent Shaker family K+ channel. Science, 309(5736), 897-903. PMID: 16002581.  Full Text:  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5736/897.long
  65. Ohndorf, U.M., MacKinnon, R. (2005). Construction of a cyclic nucleotide-gated KcsA K+ channel. J Mol Biol, 350(5), 57-865. PMID: 15979092.  Full Text:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022283605006054
  66. Ruta, V., MacKinnon, R. (2004). Localization of the voltage-sensor toxin receptor on KvAP. Biochemistry, 43(31), 10071-10079. PMID: 15287735.  Full Text:  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi049463y
  67. Valiyaveetil, F.I., Sekedat, M., Muir, T.W., MacKinnon, R. (2004). Glycine as a D-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter. PNAS, 101(49), 17045-17049. PMID: 15563591; PMCID: 535378.  PMC Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535378/
  68. Jiang, Q.X., Wang, D.N., MacKinnon, R. (2004). Electron microscopic analysis of KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channels in an open conformation. Nature, 430(7001), 806-810. PMID: 15306816. Full Text:  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n7001/full/nature02735.html
  69. Lee, S.Y., MacKinnon, R. (2004). A membrane-access mechanism of ion channel inhibition by voltage sensor toxins from spider venom. Nature, 430(6996), 232-235. PMID: 15241419.  Full Text:  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n6996/full/nature02632.html
  70. Valiyaveetil, F.I., Sekedat, M., Muir, T.W., MacKinnon, R. (2004). Semisynthesis of a functional K+ channel. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 43(19), 2504-2507. PMID: 15127436.  Full Text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.2004538 abstract;jsessionid=1F222A4C931ABC4CA96D5ADD59AB220C.f03t04
  71. Zhou, M., MacKinnon, R. (2004). A mutant KcsA K+ channel with altered conduction properties and selectivity filter ion distribution. J Mol Biol, 338(4), 839-846. PMID: 15099749.  Full Text:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022283604003109
  72. Zhou, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2004). Ion binding affinity in the cavity of the KcsA potassium channel. Biochemistry, 43(17), 4978-4982. PMID: 15109256.
  73. Zhou, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2003). The occupancy of ions in the K+ selectivity filter: charge balance and coupling of ion binding to a protein conformational change underlie high conduction rates. J Mol Biol, 333(5), 965-975. PMID: 14583193.  Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//?term=14583193
  74. Jiang, Y., Ruta,V., Chen, J., Lee, A., MacKinnon, R. (2003). The principle of gating charge movement in a voltage-dependent K+ channel. Nature, 423(6935), 42-48. PMID: 12721619.  Full Text:  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6935/full/nature01581.html
  75. Jiang, Y., Lee, A., Chen, J., Ruta, V., Cadene, M., Chait, B.T., MacKinnon, R. (2003). X-ray structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel. Nature, 423(6935), 33-41. PMID: 12721618.  Full Text:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//?term=12721618
  76. Dutzler, R., Campbell, E.B., MacKinnon, R. (2003). Gating the selectivity filter in ClC chloride channels. Science, 300(5616), 108-112. PMID: 12649487. Full Text: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/300/5616/108.long
  77. Ruta V, Jiang Y, Lee A, Chen J, MacKinnon R. (2003). Functional analysis of an archaebacterial voltage-dependent K+ channel. Nature, 422(6928), 180-185. PMID: 12629550.  Full Text: nature01473
  78. Nishida, M., MacKinnon, R. (2002). Structural basis of inward rectification: Cytoplasmic pore of the G protein-gated inward rectifier GIRK1 at 1.8 Å resolution. Cell, 111(7), 957-965. PMID: 12507423.  Full Text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867402012278
  79. Yifrach, O., MacKinnon, R. (2002). Energetics of pore opening in a voltage-gated K+ channel. Cell, 111(2), 231-239. PMID: 12408867.  Full Text:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867402010139 
  80. Valiyaveetil, F.I., Zhou, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2002). Lipids in the structure, folding, and function of the KcsA K+ channel. Biochemistry, 41(35), 10771-10777. PMID: 12196015.  Full Text: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bi026215y
  81. Valiyaveetil, F.I., MacKinnon, R., Muir, T.W. (2002). Semisynthesis and folding of the potassium channel KcsA. J Am Chem Soc, 124(31), 9113-9120. PMID: 12149015.  Full Text: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja0266722
  82. Jiang, Y., Lee, A., Chen, J., Cadene, M., Chait, B.T., MacKinnon, R. (2002). The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature, 417(6888), 523-526. PMID: 12037560. Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v417/n6888/full/417523a.html
  83. Jiang, Y., Lee, A., Chen, J., Cadene, M., Chait, B.T., MacKinnon, R. (2002). Crystal structure and mechanism of a calcium-gated potassium channel. Nature, 417(6888), 515-522. PMID: 12037559. Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v417/n6888/full/417515a.html
  84. Dutzler, R., Campbell, E.B., Cadene, M., Chait, B.T., MacKinnon, R. (2002). X-ray structure of a ClC chloride channel at 3.0 Å reveals the molecular basis of anion selectivity. Nature, 415(6869), 287-294. PMID: 11796999.  Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6869/full/415287a.html
  85. Zhou, Y., Morais-Cabral, J.H., Kaufman, A., MacKinnon, R. (2001). Chemistry of ion coordination and hydration revealed by a K+ channel-Fab complex at 2.0 Å resolution. Nature, 414(6859), 43-48. PMID: 11689936. Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v414/n6859/full/414043a0.html
  86. Morais-Cabral, J.H., Zhou, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2001). Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter. Nature, 414(6859), 37-42. PMID: 11689935.  Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v414/n6859/full/414037a0.html
  87. Zhou, M., Morais-Cabral, J., Mann, S., MacKinnon, R. (2001). Potassium channel receptor site for the inactivation gate and quaternary amine inhibitors. Nature, 411(6838), 657-661. PMID: 11395760. Full Text: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v411/n6838/full/411657a0.html
  88. Jiang, Y., Pico, A., Cadene, M., Chait, B., MacKinnon, R. (2001). Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and demonstration of its presence in the human BK channel. Neuron, 29(3), 593-601. PMID: 11301020.  Full Text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627301002367
  89. Gulbis, J.M., Zhou, M., Mann, S., MacKinnon, R. (2000). Structure of the cytoplasmic ß subunit--T1 assembly of voltage-dependent K+ channels. Science, 289(5476), 123-127. PMID: 10884227. Full Text: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/289/5476/123.long
  90. Jiang, Y., MacKinnon, R. (2000). The barium site in a potassium channel by x-ray crystallography. J Gen Physiol, 115(3), 269-272. PMID: 10694255; PMCID: 2217209. Full Text: http://jgp.rupress.org/content/115/3/269.long
  91. Imredy, J.P., MacKinnon, R. (2000). Energetic and structural interactions between d-dendrotoxin and voltage-gated potassium channel. J Mol Biology, 296(5), 1283-1294. PMID: 10698633. Full Text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022283600935228
  92. Morrill, J.A., MacKinnon, R. (1999). Isolation of a single carboxyl-carboxylate proton binding site in the pore of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel.  J Gen. Physiol, 114(1), 71-84. PMID: 10398693; PMCID: 2229637.
  93. Roux, B., MacKinnon, R. (1999). The cavity and pore helices in the KcsA K+ channel: electrostatic stabilization of monovalent cations.  Science, 285(5424), 100-102. PMID: 10390357.
  94. Gulbis, J.M., Mann, S., MacKinnon, R. (1999). Structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel ß subunit. Cell, 97(7), 943-952. PMID: 10399921.
  95. Morais Cabral, J.H., Lee, A., Cohen, S.L., Chait, B.T., Li, M., MacKinnon, R. (1998). Crystal structure and functional analysis of the HERG potassium channel N terminus: a eukaryotic PAS domain. Cell, 95(5), 649-655. PMID: 9845367.
  96. Imredy, J., Chen, C., MacKinnon, R. (1998). A snake toxin inhibitor of inward rectifier potassium channel ROMK1. Biochemistry, 37(42), 14867-14874. PMID: 9778362.
  97. MacKinnon, R., Cohen, S.L., Kuo, A., Lee, A., Chait, B.T. (1998). Structural conservation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic potassium channels. Science, 280(5360), 106-109. PMID: 9525854.
  98. Doyle, D.A., Cabral, J.M., Pfuetzner, R.A., Kuo, A., Gulbis, J.M., Cohen, S.L., Chait, B.T., MacKinnon, R. (1998). The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science, 280(5360): 69-77. PMID: 9525859.  Full Text: http://classic.sciencemag.org/content/280/5360/69.full.pdf
  99. Lu, Z., MacKinnon, R. (1997). Purification, characterization, and synthesis of an inward-rectifier K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom.  Biochemistry, 36(23), 6936-6940. PMID: 9188688.
  100. Swartz, K.J., MacKinnon, R. (1997). Mapping the receptor site for Hanatoxin, a gating modifier of voltage-dependent K+ channels. Neuron, 18(4), 675-682. PMID: 9136775.
  101. Swartz, K.J., MacKinnon, R. (1997). Hanatoxin modifies the gating of a voltage-dependent K+ channel through multiple binding sites. Neuron, 18(4), 665-673. PMID: 9136774.
  102. Doyle, D.A., Lee, A., Lewis, J., Kim, E., Sheng, M., MacKinnon, R. (1996). Crystal structures of a complexed and peptide-free membrane protein-binding domain: molecular basis of peptide recognition by PDZ. Cell, 85(7), 1067-1076. PMID: 8674113.
  103. Aggarwal, S.K., MacKinnon, R. (1996). Contribution of the S4 segment to gating charge in the Shaker K+ channel. Neuron, 16(6), 1169-1177. PMID: 8663993.
  104. Gross, A., MacKinnon, R. (1996). Agitoxin footprinting the Shaker potassium channel pore. Neuron, 16(2), 399-406. PMID: 8789954.
  105. Ranganathan, R., Lewis, J., MacKinnon, R. (1996). Spatial localization of the K+ channel selectivity filter by mutant cycle-based structure analysis. Neuron, 16(1), 131-139. PMID: 8562077.
  106. Park, C.S., MacKinnon, R. (1995). Divalent cation selectivity in a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Biochemistry, 34(41). 13328-13333. PMID: 7577917.
  107. Lu, Z., MacKinnon, R. (1995). Probing a potassium channel pore with an engineered protonatable site. Biochemistry, 34(40), 13133-13138. PMID: 7548074.
  108. Swartz, K., MacKinnon, R. (1995). An Inhibitor of the Kv2.1 potassium channel isolated from the venom of a Chilean tarantula. Neuron, 15(4), 941-949. PMID: 7576642.
  109. Krezel, A., Khasibhatla, C., Hidalgo, P., MacKinnon, R., Wagner, G. (1995). Solution structure of the potassium channel inhibitor agitoxin 2:  Caliper for probing channel geometry. Protein Science, 4(8), 1478-1489. PMID: 8520473.
  110. Hidalgo, P., MacKinnon, R. (1995). Revealing the architecture of a K+ channel pore through mutant cycles with a peptide inhibitor. Science, 268(5208), 307-310. PMID: 7716527.
  111. Gross, A., Abramson, T., MacKinnon, R. (1994). Transfer of the scorpion toxin receptor to an insensitive potassium channel. Neuron, 13(4), 961-966. PMID: 7946339.
  112. Lu, Z., MacKinnon, R. (1994). Electrostatic tuning of Mg2+ affinity in an inward-rectifier K+ channel. Nature, 371(6494), 243-246. PMID: 7915826.
  113. Root, M.J., MacKinnon, R. (1994). Two identical noninteracting sites in an ion channel revealed by proton transfer. Science, 265(5180), 1852-1856. PMID: 7522344.
  114. Lu, Z., MacKinnon, R. (1994). A conductance maximum observed in an inward-rectifier potassium channel. J Gen Physiol, 104(3), 477-486. PMID: 7807057.
  115. Garcia, M.L., Garcia-Calvo, M., Hidalgo, P., Lee, A., MacKinnon, R. (1994). Purification and characterization of three inhibitors of voltage-dependent K+ channels from Leiurus Quinquestriatus var. Hebraeus venom.  Biochemistry, 33(22), 6834-6839. PMID: 8204618.
  116. Heginbotham, L., Lu, Z., Abramson, T., MacKinnon, R. (1994). Mutations in the K+ channel signature sequence. Biophysical J, 66(4), 1061-1067. PMID: 8038378.
  117. MacKinnon, R., Aldrich, R.W., Lee, A.W. (1993). Functional stoichiometry of Shaker potassium channel inactivation. Science, 262(5134), 757-759. PMID: 7694359.
  118. Heginbotham, L., MacKinnon, R. (1993). Conduction properties of the cloned Shaker K+ channel. Biophysical J, 65(5), 2089-2096. PMID: 8298038.
  119. Root, M., MacKinnon, R. (1993). Identification of an external divalent cation-binding site in the pore of a cGMP-activated channel. Neuron, 11(3), 459-466. PMID: 7691102.
  120. Perozo, E., MacKinnon, R., Bezanilla, F., Stefani, E. (1993). Gating currents from a nonconducting mutant reveal open-closed conformations in Shaker K+ channels.  Neuron, 11(2), 353-358. PMID: 8352943.
  121. Escobar, L., Root, M., MacKinnon, R. (1993). Influence of protein surface charge on the bimolecular kinetics of a potassium channel peptide inhibitor. Biochemistry, 32(27), 6982-6987. PMID: 7687466.
  122. Heginbotham, L., Abramson, T., MacKinnon, R. (1992). A functional connection between the pores of distantly related ion channels as revealed by mutant K+ channels. Science, 258(5085), 1152-1155. PMID: 1279807.
  123. Heginbotham, L., MacKinnon, R. (1992). The aromatic binding site for tetraethylammonium ion on potassium channels. Neuron, 8(3), 483-491. PMID: 1550673.
  124. MacKinnon, R. (1991). Determination of the subunit stoichiometry of a voltage-activated potassium channel. Nature, 350(6315), 232-235. PMID: 1706481.
  125. Yellen, G., Jurman, M., Abramson, T., MacKinnon, R. (1991). Mutations affecting internal TEA blockade identify the probable pore-forming region of a K+ channel. Science, 251(4996), 939-942. PMID: 2000494.
  126. MacKinnon, R., Yellen, G. (1990). Mutations affecting TEA blockade and ion permeation in voltage-activated K+ channels. Science, 250(4978), 276-279. PMID: 2218530.
  127. MacKinnon, R., Heginbotham, L., Abramson, T. (1990). Mapping the receptor site for charybdotoxin, a pore-blocking potassium channel inhibitor. Neuron, 5(6): 767-771. PMID: 1702643.
  128. Schumaker, M., MacKinnon, R. (1990). A simple model for multi-ion permeation:  single-vacancy conduction in a simple pore model. Biophysical J, 58(4), 975-984. PMID: 1701102.
  129. MacKinnon, R., Miller, C. (1989). Mutant potassium channels with altered binding of charybdotoxin, a pore-blocking peptide inhibitor. Science, 245(4924), 1382-1385. PMID: 2476850.
  130. MacKinnon, R., Latorre R, Miller, C. (1989). Role of surface electrostatics in the operation of a high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel.  Biochemistry, 28(20), 8092-8099. PMID: 2605175.
  131. MacKinnon, R., Miller, C. (1989). Functional modification of Ca2+-activated K+ channel by trimethyloxonium. Biochemistry, 28(20), 8087-8092. PMID: 2481495.
  132. MacKinnon, R., Reinhart, P., White, M. (1988). Charybdotoxin block of Shaker K+ channels suggests that different types of K+ channels share common structural features.  Neuron, 1(10), 997-1001. PMID: 2483094.
  133. MacKinnon, R., Miller, C. (1988). Mechanism of charybdotoxin block of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel. J Gen Physiol, 91(3), 335-349. PMID: 2454283.
  134. Anderson, C.S., MacKinnon, R., Smith, C., Miller, C. (1988). Charybdotoxin block of single Ca2+- activated K+ channels: Effects of channel gating, voltage, and ionic strength. J Gen Physiol, 91(3), 317-333. PMID: 2454282.
  135. MacKinnon, R., Gwathmey, J., Allen, P., Briggs, M., Morgan, J.P. (1988). Modulation by the thyroid state of intracellular calcium and contractility in ferret ventricular muscle. Circ Res, 63(6), 1080-1089. PMID: 3197273.
  136. MacKinnon, R., Gwathmey, J., Morgan, J.P. (1987). Differential effects of reoxygenation on intracellular calcium and isometric tension. Pflugers Arch, 409(4-5), 448-453. PMID: 3627961.
  137. Gwathmey JK, Copelas L, MacKinnon R, Schoen FJ, Feldman MD, Grossman W, Morgan JP. Abnormal intracellular calcium handling in myocardium from patients with end-stage heart failure. Circ Res. 1987 Jul;61(1):70-6. PMID: 3608112.
  138. MacKinnon, R., Morgan, J.P. (1986). Influence of the thyroid state on the calcium transient in ventricular muscle. Pflugers Arch, 407(2), 142-144. PMID: 2428004.

 Review Articles:

  1. Gouaux, E., MacKinnon, R. (2005). Principles of selective ion transport in channels and pumps. Science, 310(5753), 1461-1465. PMID: 16322449.
  2. MacKinnon, R. (2005). Membrane protein insertion and stability. Science, 307(5714), 1425-1426. PMID: 15746418.
  3. MacKinnon, R. (2004). Voltage sensor meets lipid membrane. Science, 306(5700), 1304-1305. PMID: 15550651.
  4. MacKinnon, R. (2004). Potassium channels and the atomic basis of selective ion conduction (Nobel Lecture). Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 43(33), 4265-4277. PMID: 15368373.
  5. MacKinnon, R. (2003). Potassium channels. FEBS Letter 555(1), 62-65. PMID: 14630320.
  6. MacKinnon, R. (1995). Pore loops: an emerging theme in ion channel structure. Neuron, May; 14(5), 889-92. PMID: 7538310.
Niu, Y., Tao, X., Touhara, K., MacKinnon, R. (2020). Cryo-EM analysis of PIP2 regulation in GIRK channels. eLife, Aug. 26; 9:e60552. PMID: 32844743.  PMCID: 7556866.  Full text: https